It is not merely about quantifying

sustaining Science

canada goose shop uk The Paradigm Shift and the Business of Paradigms in the canada goose factory outlet WorkplaceWorld of Warcraft Gamer Guide canada goose outlet online uk Reviews Paradigm ShiftIt is interesting to note that paradigm shifting work is often produced by non specialist outsiders, gifted amateurs, and laymen (such as Da Vinci, Steno, Mandel, Freud, and, to some extent, Einstein). As Thomas Kuhn noted, run of the mill scientists are vested canada goose black friday sale and invested in the status quo and normally generate paradigm sustaining theories and discoveries. canada goose shop uk

canada goose outlet trillium parka black All theories scientific or not start with a problem. They aim to solve it by proving that what appears to be “problematic” is not. They re state the conundrum, or introduce new data, new variables, a new classification, or new organizing principles. They incorporate the problem in a larger body of knowledge, or in a conjecture (“solution”). They explain why we thought we had an issue on our hands and how it can be avoided, vitiated, or resolved. canada goose outlet trillium parka black

official canada goose outlet Scientific theories invite constant criticism and revision. They yield new problems. They are proven erroneous and are replaced by new models which offer better explanations and a more profound sense of understanding often by solving these new problems. From time to time, the successor theories constitute a canada goose outlet new york city break with everything known and done till then. These seismic convulsions are known as “paradigm shifts”. official canada goose outlet

canada goose outlet canada Contrary to widespread opinion even among canada goose outlet shop scientists science is not only about “facts”. It is not merely about quantifying, measuring, describing, classifying, and organizing “things” (entities). It is not even concerned with finding out the “truth”. Science is about providing us with canada goose outlet toronto factory concepts, explanations, and predictions (collectively known as “theories”) and thus endowing us with a sense of understanding of our world. canada goose outlet canada

canada goose outlet new york city Scientific theories are allegorical or metaphoric. They revolve around canada goose jacket outlet symbols and theoretical constructs, concepts and substantive assumptions, axioms and hypotheses most of which can never, even in principle, be computed, observed, quantified, measured, or correlated with the world “out there”. By appealing to our imagination, scientific theories reveal what David Deutsch calls “the fabric of reality”. In short: it is the theory’s explanatory dimensions that determine which experiments are relevant and which are not. Forecasts and experiments that are official canada goose outlet not embedded in an understanding of the world (in an explanation) do not constitute science. canada goose outlet new york city

canada goose outlet uk Granted, predictions and experiments are crucial to the growth of scientific knowledge and the winnowing out of erroneous or inadequate theories. But they are not the only mechanisms of natural selection. There are other criteria that help us decide canada goose outlet reviews whether to adopt and place confidence in a scientific theory or not. Is the theory aesthetic (parsimonious), logical, does it provide a reasonable explanation and, thus, does it further our understanding of the world? canada goose outlet uk

canada goose outlet factory David Deutsch in “The Fabric of Reality” (p. 11): canada goose outlet factory

canada goose coats uk “. (I)t is hard to give a precise definition of ‘explanation’ or ‘understanding’. Roughly speaking, they are about ‘why’ rather than canada goose outlet store uk ‘what'; about the inner workings of things; about how things really are, not just how they appear to be; about what must be so, rather than what merely happens to canada goose outlet canada be so; about laws of nature rather than rules of thumb. They are also about coherence, elegance, and simplicity, as opposed to arbitrariness and complexity.” canada goose coats uk

canada goose outlet kokemuksia Reductionists and emergentists ignore the existence of a hierarchy of scientific theories and meta languages. They believe and it is an article of faith, not of science that complex phenomena (such as the human mind) can be reduced to simple ones (such as the physics and chemistry of the brain). Furthermore, canada goose outlet sale to them the act of reduction is, in itself, an explanation and a form of pertinent understanding. Human thought, fantasy, imagination, and emotions are nothing but electric currents and spurts of chemicals in the brain, they say. canada goose outlet kokemuksia

canada goose outlet store new york Holists, on the other canada goose outlet store hand, refuse to consider the possibility that some higher canada goose outlet uk level phenomena can, indeed, be fully reduced to base components and primitive interactions. They ignore the fact that reductionism sometimes does provide explanations and understanding. The properties of water, for instance, do spring forth from its chemical and physical composition and from the interactions between its constituent atoms and subatomic particles. canada goose outlet store new york

canada goose jacket outlet uk Still, there is a general agreement that scientific theories must be abstract (independent of specific time or place), intersubjectively explicit (contain detailed descriptions of the subject matter in unambiguous terms), logically rigorous (make use of logical systems shared and accepted by the practitioners in the field), empirically relevant (correspond to results of empirical research), useful (in describing and/or explaining the world), and provide typologies and predictions. canada goose jacket outlet uk

canada goose outlet paypal A scientific theory should resort to primitive (atomic) terminology and all its complex (derived) terms and concepts should be defined in these indivisible terms. It canada goose outlet should offer a map unequivocally and consistently connecting operational definitions to theoretical concepts. canada goose outlet paypal

canada goose outlet reviews Operational definitions that connect to the same theoretical concept should not contradict each other (be negatively correlated). They should yield agreement on measurement conducted independently by trained experimenters. But investigation of the theory of its implication can proceed even without quantification. canada goose outlet reviews

canada goose outlet black friday sale Theoretical concepts need not necessarily canada goose outlet black friday be measurable or quantifiable or observable. But a scientific theory should afford at least four levels of quantification of its operational and theoretical definitions of concepts: nominal (labeling), ordinal (ranking), interval and ratio. canada goose outlet black friday sale

canada goose outlet phone number As we said, scientific theories are not confined to quantified definitions or to a classificatory apparatus. To qualify as scientific they must contain statements about relationships (mostly causal) between concepts empirically supported laws and/or propositions (statements derived from axioms) canada goose outlet phone number.

Laat een reactie achter

Visit Us On FacebookVisit Us On PinterestVisit Us On Google Plus